Abstract — The Poynting vector method is adapted to accommodate a non-zero phase shift between electric and magnetic field vectors in a technique used to gauge the direction of energy propagation at a point close to a tested device. With this method and the pifa antenna, evidence of cases where energy propagates back towards the device are set forth. The technique verifies the applicability of the Poynting vector theorem for near-field evaluation.
Abstract— An innovative method of assessment of the nonzero phase shift between electric (E) and magnetic (H) field vectors is introduced, making possible an analysis of the impact on wave propagation of a 5G array antenna. The presented two-probe measurement technique is based on a robust assessment of spatial distribution of E and H fields along with a signal propagation orientation in the reactive near-field zone of a device. This method allows one to quantify both the energy radiating outward into free space and the reactive portion of the reversing electromagnetic field which affects the efficiency of the transmitter. The ability to examine the Poynting vector variation relative to the changing phase of 0, 30, and 90 degrees between two active elements of the array antenna provides information about beam strength and direction of propagation. This method elucidates the effect of the phase shift on wave propagation direction, back-scattering, and power density.
Abstract — The next generation of wireless 5G technology is being continuously designed to meet the growing demand from different industries for more data, more devices, higher speed, and improved operational efficiency. While mmWave bands offer much higher bandwidths, they are subject to higher signal losses when compared to the lower frequency bands currently used for wireless technologies. As such, the industries involved require evolutionary methodologies for the thorough evaluation of 5G mobile devices. The authors offer an advanced near-field measurement technique as a solution for robust assessment of device performance. This novel method introduces the spatial vector evaluation of both electric E and magnetic H fields through the cross-detection of their interaction. Based in terms of the Poynting theorem, this two-probe technique provides a steady measurement-based orientation for research within the rapidly changing conditions of the mmWave environment.